Theme: Salmon in a Changing Salmosphere
Sub-theme: Opening the Black Box: Advances in Understanding the Marine Phase of the Salmon Lifecycle
Preferred Presentation Format: Live oral presentation
Title: Late ocean entry timing provides resilience to populations of Chinook and sockeye salmon in the Fraser River
Authors: Richard J. Beamish1*, Ruston Sweeting1, and Chrys Neville1
1Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 3190 Hammond Bay Rd, Nanaimo, B,C., V9T 6N7, Canada (*Email: email@example.com; Tel: 1-250-756-xxxx; Fax: 1-250-756-xxxxx)
Abstract: Most sockeye salmon from the Fraser River enter the Strait of Georgia by early May and most Chinook salmon by mid-May. There are populations of Chinook salmon from the South Thompson River area and one population of sockeye salmon from the Harrison River that enter the Strait of Georgia almost two months later. The productivity of these species with a late ocean entry life history strategy has been exceptional in recent years. The reasons for the recent improved productivity of the late ocean-entry life history type are not known, but the success identifies the importance of a temporal spread in ocean entry timing of the aggregate of populations. The recent success also reminds us that ocean entry timing of the aggregate of populations has evolved to be able to adapt to long-term changes in the timing of prey populations in the early marine period.
Status of Salmon Theme Objective: The present status of salmon and their environments is understood.
Sub-theme: The Status of Salmon across the Northern Hemisphere
Increased variability in the abundances of salmon populations has been observed across the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. Many populations have experienced significant and persistent declining trends while others have experienced major increases. Understanding the status of salmon on a hemispheric and regional level is of fundamental importance to inform decision making, research and communication with key stakeholders and the broader public. This sub-theme will provide an overview of salmon status and trends by species and geographic scale, as well a review of the different methods used to determine status throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Sub-theme: Changing Climate, Changing Status: Understanding Shifts in Salmon Distribution, Productivity and Abundance Under Climate Change
Climate change is causing major shifts in the distribution, abundance, and productivity of salmon across the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding the changes in these factors to date, modelling future changes and adequately accounting for ecological and climate uncertainties is critical to support research and management. This sub-theme will include presentations on the observed and expected changes in salmon distributions across the Northern Hemisphere, current and emerging modelling approaches for producing annual forecasts and future scenarios, and the incorporation of climate and ecological uncertainty into these approaches
Information Systems Theme Objective: Freely available information systems contain historic and current data about salmon and their environment.
Sub-theme: Towards a Data driven Future: Progress and Future Requirements for Data Mobilization across the Salmosphere
A major challenge experienced across the Northern Hemisphere is ensuring that data related to salmon and associated ecosystem domains are made readily available to scientists and decision makers. Despite the plethora of existing salmon-related data, only a small portion adheres to the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) principles. This sub-theme will include presentations that review and synthesize data mobilization successes, current barriers to data mobilization and provide an outlook for data mobilization over the next decade.
Sub-theme: Harnessing Artificial Intelligence: The Role of AI in Salmon Resource Management
Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have been widely applied to solve complex problems across many sectors. However, there has been limited use of these powerful systems in supporting salmon fisheries monitoring, management and research. A wide range of potential benefits are linked to the application of AI, such as enabling the rapid discovery of multiple data sources and providing connections between researchers working on similar issues across the salmosphere. Presentations during this sub-theme will provide examples of current applications of AI in supporting salmon fisheries management and research information systems and provide an outlook for use of AI over the next decade.
Salmon in a Changing Salmosphere Theme Objective: The effects of natural environmental variability and human factors affecting salmon distribution and abundance are understood and quantified.
Sub-theme: Examining the Likely Suspects: Developments in a Wholistic Understanding of Salmon Marine and Freshwater Survival
The effective management of salmon in the context of their associated ecosystems requires an understanding of the cumulative impact of the drivers of salmon survival across life history stages. A holistic lifecycle approach will inform annual forecasts, recovery planning, and management strategy evaluations to support resource management decisions and climate change risk assessments. The Likely Suspects Framework (LSF) concept was proposed in 2017 by a group of salmon researchers from the Atlantic and the Pacific basins, as such a process with the goal of providing practical advice to managers and decision makers by identifying the main sources of salmon mortality and their cumulative effects across the lifecycle for a salmon population of interest. This sub-theme will include presentations on the LSF in the Atlantic and Pacific ecoregions and developments in comprehensive lifecycle modelling.
Sub-theme: Opening the Black Box: Advances in Understanding the Marine Phase of the Salmon Lifecycle
There remain significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the distribution and survival of Pacific and Atlantic salmon in coastal and especially in high seas environments. During the IYS, there have been significant efforts to better understand the marine phase of the salmon lifecycle, such as the 2018, 2019 and 2022 IYS High Seas Expeditions examining winter ecology. In this sub-theme, advances in the understanding of the marine ecology of salmon and priority areas for future research will be presented.
Sub-theme: The Future for Salmon Aquaculture: Understanding the Impacts of Aquaculture and Considering Emerging Approaches to Mitigation
Aquaculture has had documented detrimental impacts on wild salmon populations. This sub-theme will include presentations on recent advancements in understanding of the impacts of aquaculture on salmon populations and the environments they inhabit, as well as synthesizing current and emerging approaches to improve the environmental and ecological sustainability of aquaculture.
Sub-theme: Hatching Plans: The Future of Fisheries Enhancement Programs
Hatcheries have been a widely applied, but controversial management tool. As salmon populations across the Northern Hemisphere face the intensifying effects of climate change, what role will hatcheries play in conserving wild populations and supporting fisheries? This sub-theme will include presentations on recent and emerging developments in research on the risks and benefits of hatcheries.
Sub-theme: Back to the Future: Advances in Understanding the Value of Fresh and Brackish Water Habitats, their Future with Climate Change, and the Efficacy of Habitat Restoration
Freshwater and brackish habitats are vital to salmon populations and their conservation and restoration remains central to direct salmon management efforts across the Northern Hemisphere. Climate change poses significant risks to salmon and these habitats, and adapting restoration strategies to account for these changes will be critical. This sub-theme will include presentations on the advances in our understanding of how fresh and brackish water habitats influence salmon populations, and the efficacy of habitat restoration and connectivity solutions in the context of climate change.
New Frontiers Theme Objective: New technologies and analytical methods are advanced and applied to salmon research. Research is carried out to fill gaps in poorly studied regions of the salmosphere.
Sub-theme: Are Uncrewed Vessels the Key for Practicable Monitoring of Salmon and their Ecosystems?
From Saildrones to underwater gliders, the ability of autonomous vehicles and remote systems to survey marine and freshwater environments and help us better understand the effects of climate change is becoming more and more sophisticated. Previously, autonomous vehicles were mostly used to help understand aquatic conditions, like temperature, salinity, and currents. However, the latest autonomous vehicle technologies allow us to start to study entire ecosystems, using tools such as acoustics and environmental DNA. This sub-theme will include presentations on the latest applications of uncrewed vehicles in the research of salmon and their ecosystems, and what they will likely be able to achieve in 10 years’ time.
Sub-theme: Tiny Clues, Big Insights: The Use of Genomics in Salmon and Ecosystem Research
The use of technologies that employ DNA and RNA to support research aiming to better understand the origins, abundances, distributions, and health of salmon have grown in popularity in recent years and will likely play a more central role in informing management in the future. This sub-theme will include presentations on the current advances in the applications of salmon genomics in research and management across the Northern Hemisphere, as well as those highlighting promising emerging genomic technologies.
Sub-theme: Tracking the Epic Journeys of Salmon: Advancements in Telemetry and Microchemistry
Despite the rapid development of new genetic technologies, techniques such as telemetry and microchemistry continue to provide invaluable data that allow researchers to gain insights into salmon distributions and life histories. Researchers also continue to find new techniques and applications for these approaches. This sub-theme will include presentations on current and future applications of telemetry and microchemistry.
Human Dimensions Theme Objective: Communities, Indigenous Peoples, youth, harvesters, scientists and resource managers across the Northern Hemisphere share knowledge and collaborate in the development of new tools and approaches to restoring, managing and sustaining salmon.
Sub-theme: Managing Salmon Fisheries in a Rapidly Changing Salmosphere: The Future of Management
With rapidly changing environmental conditions and consistent declines in many salmon populations across the Northern Hemisphere, it is critical that management systems can adapt to meet dynamic environmental, social, and economic objectives at different spatial scales. This sub-session will include presentations demonstrating the strengths and weaknesses of present and emerging salmon management systems as well as outlining the requirements for climate-resilient management systems.
Sub-theme: Communication of, and Community Engagement in, Salmon Research and Management
Effectively communicating salmon research and management to the broader community is of fundamental importance to ensure salmon conservation receives the social, economic and political support it requires. Furthermore, ensuring that the broader community trusts and feels adequately considered in research and management decisions is also of high importance. This sub-theme will explore successes and challenges related to the communication of salmon research and management, as well as investigating ways in which local communities and individuals outside of science and government have been engaged in the processes of salmon research and management.
Sub-theme: Shining a Spotlight on IUU Salmon Fishing: Impacts, Solutions and Future Outlooks
From the High Seas to river systems, IUU fishing continues to have major negative impacts on salmon populations and the ecosystems, communities and economies that rely on them. It is of high importance that efforts to restrict these activities, with a combined value in the billions of dollars per year, continue to adapt with the changing nature of IUU activities and that salmon management systems and research adequately account for these activities. This sub-theme will include presentations related to the prevalence, impacts and future outlook for IUU fishing across the Northern Hemisphere.
Sub-theme: Managing Salmon Fisheries with Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science
Indigenous salmon management and knowledge systems have been sustaining salmon and people across the Northern Hemisphere for millennia. These systems have been replaced by salmon management practices largely rooted in Eurocentric worldviews and Western science. In recent decades, there has been a push to combine Western science and Indigenous Knowledge, but this has seen limited success. Presentations in this sub-theme will explore the conditions necessary and barriers for Indigenous-led management and bridging Western science and Indigenous Knowledge.